The area now called England was first inhabited by humans during the Upper Paleolithic, but takes its name from Angler, one of the Germanic tribes who settled the area in the 400 and 500's. England became a unified state in 927, and has since age of discovery, which began in the 1400s, had a significant cultural and legal impact on the wider world. The English language, the Anglican Church, and English law-the basis for the legal system common law in many other countries around the world-developed England and the country's parliamentary system of government has been widely adopted by other nations. The industrial revolution started in 1700s England and transformed society to the world's first industrialized nation.
England's terrain mostly consists of low hills and plains, especially in central and southern England. However, there are highlands in the north
(for example, the mountainous Lake District, Pennines and Yorkshire Dales) and in the south
(for example, Dartmoor and the Cotswolds). The ancient capital of England was Winchester until it was replaced by London in 1066. Today, London is the largest metropolitan area in the United Kingdom and the largest urban commercial zone in the EU According to most dimensions. England's population is about 53 million, around 84% of the population of the United Kingdom, and is largely concentrated in London, South East England and urban areas in the Midlands, North West, North East and Yorkshire, which developed major industrial regions during the 1800s. Meadows and pastures are outside the big cities.
UK England, which after 1284 included Wales, where a sovereign state up until 1 May 1707, when the Union acts took effect the terms agreed in the Treaty on European Union last year, which resulted in a political union with the Kingdom of Scotland to create the new Kingdom of Great Britain. In 1801 were the United Kingdom with the Kingdom of Ireland through the Union acts to create the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. In 1922 established the Irish Free State as a separate dominion, but the Royal and Parliamentary titulärakten 1927 reinstated the six Irish counties of the realm to create the current United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland.
The Roman province of Britannia, representing England and Wales, was one of the Roman Empire Celtic provinces. When Rome fell in 400 century invaded Britain in several waves of Germanic tribes from what is now northwestern Germany, Denmark and the Netherlands. These tribes were mutually related by similar language, and it was moving preferably on Saxons, Jutes, Danes and the Angles, who were themselves refugees because of the various nomadic peoples who penetrated into northern Europe from Asia.
Most of Britain came to be mastered by the new settlers, which subdued the Celts, and started to call the captured area of the Angles, which later became Anglosaxarnas country. The survivors among the Celtic population retreated against Wales and their name for England is Lloegr, which means the lost land, while the English word Welsh (Welsh) means foreigner.
During the 800s subjected the country to new Germanic invasions and conquests, this time from the Vikings. The Germanic population tried to resist invasion attempts by the Normans, but failed finally through the loss of the Battle of Hastings in 1066. England conquered Wales in the 1100s and in 1543 it was definitely an integral part of the Kingdom of England. In some contexts, however, continued Wales to be called principality. By including a strong fleet built up of Elizabeth I of England in the 1500s did England become a world power.
During the 1600s underwent England a long and complicated power conflicts during which the king deposed and the country was ruled as a republic under the name of English Commonwealth
(English Commonwealth of England). England was during this time even in personal union with Scotland, for the Scottish dynasty of the House of Stuart. The conflict ended with the monarch was reinstated, but that he lost power to the Parliament.
In 1707 decided the English and Scottish parliaments to enter into a political union (Union Acts (1707) and the countries were merged into United Kingdom (English Kingdom of Great Britain). With this ended the English and Scottish Parliaments and was replaced by the British Parliament in London. The British King was also King of Ireland, and in 1801 was included, a new union treaty that created the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.
Battle of Hastings in 1066, the Tapestry, Bayeux Musee, Normandy, France. After Ireland administratively divided in the 1920s, adopted the British monarch rather than the title of King of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland.
England directly under the British parliament and the government in London. Unlike the other national sections have England not have its own national legislature. The State Administration in England, however, divided into nine large regions. This breakdown may be compared to the state county administrative boards in Sweden, but Greater London for example, has both a directly elected mayor and directly elected regional assembly. It has also made attempts to introduce directly elected regional assemblies elsewhere, but failed, the government wanted to introduce direct elections to the regional Assembly of the North East of England, but the proposal received little support in a referendum (21.8 percent, 4 November 1978).
Regional breakdown of England but directly elected assemblies is a hot political issue, for example, the Conservative Party strongly opposed the division. Conservative Party received more votes than the Labour Party in Britain, but had insufficient support in Scotland and Wales to win the British parliamentary elections in 2005.
North West England (chief town: Manchester)
North East England (capital: Newcastle-upon-Tyne)
South West England (chief town: Bristol)
South East England (capital: Guildford)
West Midlands (chief town: Birmingham)
Yorkshire and the Humber (capital: Leeds)
East of England (capital: Cambridge)
East Midlands (capital: Nottingham)
The local or regional administrative divisions are otherwise County (English counties) and in some parts of the country makes use of only one local government level. County corresponds closest to Sweden's county councils or storkommun. Besides the division into administrative county is an older subdivision of the historic county, which is reminiscent of the relationship with the county and landscapes in Sweden. In some cases correspond division in the modern counties with the historical.
Newcastle upon Tyne
England has a well developed rail network. England was the first in the world to train with passenger and today has a modern and functional iron road. Among other things, several fast trains on the UK rail network. One of the most famous is the high-speed Eurostar train which goes from London to Paris and Brussels.
In England, there is also a very well developed network of highways that reach out to large parts of the country.
London has the highest number of air passengers (130 million) of all the world's cities, calculated as the sum of arriving and departing passengers at the city's airports, which are four in number for London. Europe's largest and one of the world's largest airport is London Heathrow Airport.
Many English rock band, particularly during the 1960s, 1970s and 1980s, is considered by several critics have been vital in rock history. Some of these are:
Black Sabbath (Aston)
Joy Division (Manchester)
Led Zeppelin (Aston)
New Order (Manchester)
The Rolling Stones
The Smiths (Manchester)
The Stone Roses (Manchester)
England and the three other British parts of the country counts in some sports as independent countries. For certain team sports that have traditionally been important in the UK, namely football, rugby and cricket. See also the England national football team and the England women's national football team. Another sport that also comes from England polo.